Document Type : Review Article
Assistant Professor of Neurology, Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Introduction: Since stress leads to changes in the secretion of endocrine and exocrine system hormones and these hormones leave their negative effects on the health of mothers and their fetuses and babies, and on the other hand, concerning the period of pregnancy is a stressful period and this stress affects the development of the nervous system of babies, so we decided to investigate the effects of the stress of pregnant mothers on the nervous development of babies in this review study.
Methods: This review study was conducted with the aim of explaining the role of stress on the development of the nervous system of infants. All review studies, clinical trials, and descriptive studies were searched to achieve the goals of this research. No time limit was applied to the studies and all published studies were evaluated in Persian and English languages.
Results: A number of articles were included in this review. The headlines of this study included stress and pregnancy, the effect of stress on pregnancy, childbirth, the effect of stress on the fetus and the baby, and the differences between male and female fetuses in being affected by maternal stress, which were fully explained.
Conclusion: Although the basal glucocorticoid level is necessary for fertility and fetal growth and development, its increase through high activity of the HPA axis (which leads to glucocorticoid production) or drug treatments with glucocorticoids can have negative effects on fertility and have the health of the fetus and its future life.
- M. Haghdoost, M.K. Gol. The necessity of paying more attention to the neurological and psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic during pregnancy. International Journal of Women’s Health and Reproduction Sciences., 3(2020) 243-44.
- Human Microbiome Project Consortium. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature., 486 (2012) 207–14.
- Grenham, G. Clarke, J.F. Cryan, T.G. Dinan. Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease. Front Physiol., 2 (2011) 94.
- M. Haghdoost, S. Mousavi, M.K. Gol, M.T Montazer. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Spontaneous Abortion of Infertile Women During First Pregnancy Referred to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences by Nested PCR Method in 2015. International Journal of Women’s Health and Reproduction Sciences., 7 (2019) 526-30.
- Yang, E.J. Corwin, P.A. Brennan, S. Jordan, J.R. Murphy, A. Dunlop. The infant microbiome: implications for infant health and neurocognitive development. Nurs Res., 65 (2016) 76.
- A. Zijlmans, K. Korea, J.M. Riksen-Walraven, W.M. de Vos, C. de Weerth. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota. Psychoneuroendocrinology.;53(2015)233–45.
- K. Gol, F. Jabarzade, V. Zamanzadeh, Cultural competence among senior nursing students of medical universities in North-West Iran. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac., 18 (2017) 612-19.
- Beijers, J.K. Buitelaar, C. de Weerth. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry., 23 (2014) 943–56.
- L. Gur, L. Shay, A.V. Palkar, S. Fisher, V.A. Varaljay, S. Dowd, M.T. Bailey. Prenatal stress affects placental cytokines and neurotrophins, commensal microbes, and anxiety-like behavior in adult female offspring. Brain Behav Immun. 64 (2017) 50–8.
- H. Wenzl, G. Schimpl, G. Feierl, G. Steinwender, Effect of prenatal cortisone on spontaneous bacterial translocation from gastrointestinal tract in neonatal rat. Dig Dis Sci., 48 (2003) 1171–6.
- B. Janssen, D.A. Kertes, G.I. McNamara et al. A role for the placenta in programming maternal mood and childhood behavioural disorders. J Neuroendocrinol., 28 (2016) 1–6.
- J. Lewis, E. Austin, R. Knapp, T. Vaiano, M. Galbally. Perinatal maternal mental health, fetal programming and child development. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)., 3 (2015) 1212–1227.
- M. Ashley, B.D. Harper, C.J. Arms-Chavez, S.G. LoBello. Estimated prevalence of antenatal depression in the US population. Arch Womens Ment Health., 19 (2016) 395–400.
- Sayyah-Melli, S. Pourazad, P.M. Gharebaghi, M. Jafari-Shobeiri, V. Rahmani. Estimated prevalence of antenatal depression in the US population. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences., 6 (2018) 211–15.
- R. Risnes, L.J. Vatten, J.L. Baker et al. Birthweight and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol., 40 (2011) 647–661.
- E. Wennerström, J. Simonsen, M. Melbye . Long-term survival of individuals born small and large for gestational age. PLoS ONE., 10 (2015) e0138594.
- T. Bailey, G.R. Lubach, C.L. Coe. Prenatal stress alters bacterial colonization of the gut in infant monkeys. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., 38 (2004) 414–21.
- E. Borre, G.W. O’Keeffe, G. Clarke, C. Stanton, T.G. Dinan, J.F. Cryan. Microbiota and neurodevelopmental windows: implications for brain disorders. Trends Mol Med., 20 (2014) 509–18.
- G. Dominguez-Bello, E.K. Costello, M. Contreras, M. Magris, G. Hidalgo, N. Fierer, R. Knight, Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 107 (2010) 11971–5.
- J. Watkins, S.J. Kotecha, S. Kotecha. All-cause mortality of low birthweight infants in infancy, childhood, and adolescence: population study of England and Wales. PLoS Med., 13 (2016) 1–20.
- J. O’Donnell, M.J. Meaney. Fetal origins of mental health: the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry., 174 (2017) 319–328.
- E. Moore, M. Ishida, C. Demetriou et al. The role and interaction of imprinted genes in human fetal growth. Philos Trans R Soc Ser B; 370 (2015) 1–12.
- B. Green, M. Kappil, L. Lambertini et al. Expression of imprinted genes in placenta is associated with infant neurobehavioral development. Epigenetics., 10 (2015) 834–841.
- A. Appleton, M.A. Murphy, D.C. Koestler et al. Prenatal programming of infant neurobehaviour in a healthy population. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol; 30 (2016) 367–375.
- Z. Tronick, K. Olson, R. Rosenberg, L. Bohne, J. Lu, B.M. Lester. Normative neurobehavioral performance of healthy infants on the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Pediatrics., 113 (2004) 641–667.
- M. Lester, E.Z. Tronick, L. LaGasse et al. Summary statistics of neonatal intensive care unit network neurobehavioral scale scores from the maternal lifestyle study: a quasinormative sample. Pediatrics., 113 (2004) 668–675.
- K. Shishavan, M. Sayyah-Melli, M.R. Rashidi, V. Rahmani, Z. Tahmasebi. The association of hair coloring during pregnancy with pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences., 9 (2021) 130–35.
- Shin, Z. Pei, K.A. Martinez, J.I. Rivera-Vinas, K. Mendez, H. Cavallin, M.G. Dominguez-Bello. The first microbial environment of infants born by C-section: the operating room microbes. Microbiome., 3 (2015) 59.
- Penders, C. Thijs, C. Vink, F.F. Stelma, B. Snijders, I. Kummeling, P.A. van den Brandt, E.E. Stobberingh. Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Pediatrics., 118 (2006) 511–21.
- J. Harmsen, A.C. Wildeboer-Veloo, G.C. Raangs. Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., 30 (2000) 61–7.
- Bezirtzoglou, A. Tsiotsias, G.W. Welling. Microbiota profile in feces of breast- and formula-fed newborns by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Anaerobe., 17 (2011) 478–82.
- K. Costello, K. Stagaman, L. Dethlefsen, B.J.M. Bohannan, D. Relman. The application of ecological theory toward an understanding of the human microbiome. Science., 336 (2012) 1255–62.
- Sayyah-Melli, M. Kazemi-Shishavan, N. Behravan, P.M. Gharabaghi, V. Rahmani. Evacuating Uterine Contents before Operative Hysteroscopy in Patients With Active Uterine Bleeding: A Randomized Clinical Trial. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences., 10 (2022) 57–62.
- K. Ursell, J.C. Clemente, J.R. Rideout, D. Gevers, J.G. Caporaso, R. Knight. The interpersonal and intrapersonal diversity of human associated microbiota in key body sites. J Allergy Clin Immunol.; 129 (2012) 1204–8.
- L. Johnson, J. Versalovic. The human microbiome and its potential importance to pediatrics. Pediatrics.; 129 (2012) 950–60.
- E. Koenig, A. Spor, N. Scalfone, A.D. Fricker, J. Stombaugh, R. Knight, L.T. Angenent, R.E. Ley. Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci.; 108 (2011) 4578–85.
- Wierzba-Bobrowicz, E. Gwiazda, E. Kosno-Kruszewska, E. Lewandowska, W. Lechowicz, B. Bertrand, G.M. Szpak, B. Schmidt-Sidor. Morphological analysis of active microglia--rod and ramified microglia in human brains affected by some neurological diseases. Folia Neuropathol.; 40 (2001) 125–31.
- Palojärvi, S. Andersson, U. Turpeinen, C. Janér, J. Petäjä. Antenatal betamethasone associates with transient immunodepression in very low birth weight infants. Neonatology.; 104 (2013a) 275–82.
- Palojärvi, J. Petäjä, S. Siitonen, C. Janér, S. Andersson. Low monocyte HLA-DR expression as an indicator of immunodepression in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res.; 73 (2013) 469–75.
- Desbonnet, G. Clarke, F. Shanahan, T.G. Dinan, J.F. Cryan. Microbiota is essential for social development in the mouse. Mol Psychiatry., 19 (2014) 146–8.
- Clarke, S.M. O’Mahony, T.G. Dinan, J.F. Cryan. Priming for health: gut microbiota acquired in early life regulates physiology, brain and behaviour. Acta Paediatr., 103 (2014) 812–9.
- Charsouei, L. Ghaderi, H.M. Anvari, R.E. Zamiri. Investigating the factors affecting the severity of neuropathic pain before and after the coronavirus infection in patients having breast cancer surgery. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences., 9 (2021)190–94.
- G. Mulle, W.G. Sharp, J.F. Cubells, The gut microbiome: a new frontier in autism research. Curr Psychiatry Rep.; 15 (2013) 1–13.
- L. Buka, R.T. Brennan, J.W. Rich-edwards, S.W. Raudenbush, F. Earls, Neighborhood support and the birth weight of urban infants, 157 (2003) 1–8.
- Dole, D.A. Savitz, I. Hertz-Picciotto, A.M. Siega-Riz, M.J. McMahon, P. Buekens, Maternal stress and preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol.; 157 (2003) 14–24.
- Racial and ethnic differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration, by state-National Immunization Survey, United States, 2004-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.; 59 (2010) 327.
- Field . Infant behavior and development prenatal depression effects on early development: a review. Infant Behav Dev., 34 (2011) 1–14.
- S. Waters, D.F. Hay, J.R. Simmonds, S.H.M. van Goozen . Antenatal depression and children’s developmental outcomes: potential mechanisms and treatment options. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry., 23 (2014) 957–971.
- Scheinost, R. Sinha, S.N. Cross et al. Does prenatal stress alter the developing connectome? Pediatr Res., 81 (2017) 214–226.
- Ryan, T. Mansell, P. Fransquet, R. Saffery . Does maternal mental well-being in pregnancy impact the early human epigenome? Epigenomics., 9 (2017) 313–332.
- Beijers, J.K. Buitelaar, C. de Weerth . Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 23 (2014)943–956.
- L. Togher, E. Treacy, G.W. O’Keeffe, L.C. Kenny. Maternal distress in late pregnancy alters obstetric outcomes and the expression of genes important for placental glucocorticoid signalling. Psychiatry Res; 255 (2017) 17–26.
- M. Hillemeier, G. Farkas, P.L. Morgan, M. Martin, S. Maczuga. Disparities in the prevalence of cognitive delay: how early do they appear? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol.; 23 (2009) 186–98.
- Charsouei, M.Z. Esfahlani, A. Dorosti, R.E. Zamiri. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress, quality of life, and coping strategies of women with breast cancer with spinal metastasis under chemotherapy. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences., 9 (2021) 55–60.
- L. Lynch. Infant health, race/ethnicity, and early educational outcomes using the ECLS-B*. Sociol Inq.; 81 (2011) 499–526.
- Morgan. Risk factors for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age: population-based estimates. J Abnorm Child Psychol.; 37 (2009) 401–13.
- A. Mclaughlin, L.M. Hilt, S. Nolen-Hoeksema. Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol.;35 (2007) 801–16.
- J. Corwin, C.J. Hogue, B. Pearce, C.C. Hill, T.D. Read, J. Mulle, A.L. Dunlop. Protocol for the Emory University African American vaginal, oral, and gut microbiome in pregnancy cohort study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth., 17 (2017) 161.
- M. Lester, E.Z. Tronick. The neonatal intensive care unit network neurobehavioral scale procedures. Pediatrics., 113 (2004) 641–67.
- Charsouei, F. Mahdavi, A.R. Nasseri. Evaluation of Three-and Five-Year Disease-Free Survival in Patients With Cervical Cancer With Spinal Cord Metastasis Under Treatment With External Radiotherapy Brachytherapy. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences., 10 (2022) 97–102.
- Musaei, The Effect of Pregnancy on the Skin, Eurasian Journal of Chemical, Medicinal and Petroleum Research, 2 (2023) 17-23.
- Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, S. Parvizy, M. Hosseini, Y. Raziani, F. Mohammadipour, Developing and validating the nursing presence scale for hospitalized patients, BMC nursing, 21 (2022) 1-6
- Raziani, L. Hasheminasab, R. Ghanei Gheshlagh, P. Dalvand, V. Baghi, M. Aslani, The prevalence of intimate partner violence among Iranian pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2022.
- Raziani, S. H. Qadir, A.H. Hermis, A. Nazari, B. Salah Othman, S. Raziani, Pistacia atlantica as an effective remedy for diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Australian Journal of Herbal and Naturopathic Medicine, 34 (2022) 118-124
- Amin, M.R. Gavanrudi, K. Karami, Y. Raziani, P. Baharvand, The role of aromatherapy with lavender in reducing the anxiety of patients with cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review of clinical trials, Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology, 11 (2022) 182-187
- Raziani, S. Hossein Qadir, B. Salah Othman, A. Mohammed Ahmed, THE STUDENT VOICE TO IMPROVE OSCE, Mosul Journal of Nursing, 10 (2022) 89-97
- Raziani, B. Salah Othman, S. Raziani, A common but unknown disease; A case series study, Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 69 (2021) 102739
- Alnomasy, G. Raheem Lateef Al-Awsi, Y. Raziani, A.E. Albalawi, A.D. Alanazi, M. Niazi, H. Mahmoudvand, Systematic review on medicinal plants used for the treatment of Giardia infection, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28 (2021) 5391-5402
- Ghorbanizadeh, Y. Raziani, M. Amraei, M. Heydarian, Care and precautions in performing CT Scans in children, Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 12 (2021) 54
- Raziani, S. Raziani, Evaluation of Mental Health of Chemotherapy-Treated Cancer Nurses, Journal of Medicinal and Chemical Sciences, 4 (2021) 351-363
- Raziani, B. Salah Othman, Ointment therapy and prevention of cannulation-induced superficial phlebitis, Veins and Lymphatics, , 10(2021).
- Raziani, S. Raziani, The effect of air pollution on myocardial infarction, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 3 (2021) 83-96
- Shahkarami, M. Nazari, M. Milanifard, R. Tavakolimoghadam, A. Bahmani, Eurasian Chem. Commun., 4 (2022) 463-472. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Z. Nazardani, S.H. Nourizadeh Dehkordi A. Ghorbani, A comprehensive evaluation of the Sports Physiotherapy curriculum, Eurasian Journal of Chemical, Medicinal and Petroleum Research, 2 (2023) 10-16. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Ghaibi, M.R. Soltani Manesh, H. Jafari Dezfouli, F. Zarif, Z. Jafari, Z. Gilani, Comparison of Marital Satisfaction, Emotional Divorce and Religious Commitment among Nurses and Staff of Ahvaz Government Hospitals, Eurasian Journal of Chemical, Medicinal and Petroleum Research, 1 (2022) 33-39. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]