Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


The need to prevent metal-related sickness is the driving force for this research. The research evaluates the composition and concentration of metals present in cast iron grinding disc used for local grinding. Different acidic mixtures were used to digest the pulverized cast-iron disc, and atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis revealed the presence of essential minerals such as iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and toxic metals like metals cadmium, chromium, lead, and nickel. The concentration of the metals varies in different ranges cadmium 0.73 to 3.44, chromium 0.88 to 6.80, lead 0.55 to 1.58, nickel 0.40 to 7.17, manganese 3.12 to 21.00, zinc 2.03 to 40.50, iron 1.93 to 49.16 and copper 3.00 to 26.92 all in mg/kg. The presence of heavy metals in the grinding disc could be a source of food contamination and possible potential health risks.

Graphical Abstract

Evaluation of Metal Composition of Cast Iron Disc Used in Local Grinding Machine


Main Subjects

[1] J. K. Odusote, G. A. Soliu, I. I. Ahmed, S. Abdukareem and K. A. Akande, Characterization of Metallic Contaminants Extracted from Ground Millet. Centrepoint Journal, 22(2) (2016) 57-68.
[2] W. Johnson, Metallurgy, 5th Edition, U.S.A., Technical Publishers Inc, 269 (1977) 278-279.
[3] O. Ogunlalu, O. Ademola, O. O. Oluwasina, A. F. and Aiyesanmi, Impact of Grinding Machine on Trace Metal Levels in Soup Condiments. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology2(4) (2017) 130.
[4] E. Normanyo, E. K. Asiam, K. Amankwa-Poku, and I. A. Adetunde, Redesign of a Grinding mill for the minimization of iron filings production. European Journal of Scientific Research36(3) (2009) 418-436.
[5] E. O. Oniya, O. E. Olubi, A. Ibitoye, J. I. Agbi, S. K. Agbeni, and E. B. Faweya, Effect of milling equipment on the level of heavy metal content of foodstuff. Physical Science International Journal, (2018) 1-8.
[6] K. V. Larsen, S. J. Cobbina, S. A. Ofori, and D. Addo, Quantification and health risk assessment of heavy metals in milled maize and millet in the Tolon District, Northern Ghana. Food Science and Nutrition8(8) (2020) 4205-4213.
[7] O. O. Elekofehinti, I. O. Omotuyi, A. G. Olaremu, and T. G. Abayomi, Heavy metals distribution and lipid profile in the stomach of cow grazed in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biochemistry Research6(11) (2012) 146-149.
[8] C. S. Silva, C. Moutinho, A. Ferreira da Vinha, and C. Matos, Trace minerals in human health: Iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and fluorine. International Journal of Science and Research Methodology13(3) (2019) 57-80.
[9] J. G. Farmer, A. Broadway, M. R. Cave, J. Wragg, F. M. Fordyce, M. C. Graham, and R. J. Bewley, A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland. Science of the total environment, 409(23) (2011) 4958-4965.
[10] J. D. Campbell, Lifestyle, minerals, and health. Medical Hypotheses, 57(5) (2001) 521-531.
[11] G. Genchi, M. S. Sinicropi, G. Lauria, A. Carocci, and A. Catalano, The effects of cadmium toxicity. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(11) (2020) 3782.
[12] Regulation, H. A. T. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1259/2007. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol16 (2006) 136-137.
[13] R. T. Achmad, and E. I. Auerkari, Effects of chromium on human body. Annual Research and Review in Biology, (2017) 1-8.
[14] B. R. Stern, M. Solioz, D. Krewski, P. Aggett, T. C. Aw, S. Baker, and T. Starr, Copper, and human health: biochemistry, genetics, and strategies for modeling dose-response relationships. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 10(3) (2007) 157-222.
[15] S. Buxton, E. Garman, K. E. Heim, T. Lyons-Darden, C. E. Schlekat, M. D. Taylor, and A. R. Oller, Concise review of nickel human health toxicology and ecotoxicology. Inorganics, 7(7) (2019) 89.
[16] M. R. Miah, O. M. Ijomone, C. O. Okoh, O. K. Ijomone, G. T. Akingbade, T. Ke, and M. Aschner, The effects of manganese overexposure on brain health. Neurochemistry international, 135 (2020) 104688.
[17] L. M. Plum, L. Rink, and H. Haase, The essential toxin: impact of zinc on human health. International journal of environmental research and public health, 7(4) (2010) 1342-1365.
[18] J. K. Odusote, G. A. Soliu, I. I. Ahmed, S. Abdulkareem, and K. A. Akande, Assessment of metallic contaminants in grinded millet using domestic grinding machine. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development, 14(1) (2017) 13-17.
[19] R. M. Twyman, Sample dissolution for elemental analysis/wet digestion, University of York, York, UK. Revised A. D. Sawant, (2005) 4503-4510.
[20] J. J. Kim, Y. S. Kim, and V. Kumar, Heavy metal toxicity: An update of chelating therapeutic strategies. Journal of Trace elements in Medicine and Biology, 54 (2019) 226-231.
[21] P. M. Linnik, and I. B. Zubenko, Role of bottom sediments in the secondary pollution of aquatic environments by heavy‐metal compounds. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management5(1) (2000) 11-21.
[22] T. V. Peres, M. R. C. Schettinger, P. Chen, F. Carvalho, D. S. Avila, A. B. Bowman, and M. Aschner, Manganese-induced neurotoxicity: a review of its behavioral consequences and neuroprotective strategies. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 17(1) (2016) 1-20.
[23] A. W. Dobson, K. M. Erikson, and M. Aschner, Manganese neurotoxicity Ann NY Acad Sci, 1012 (2004) 115–128. 
[24] J. H. Freeland-Graves, T. Y. Mousa, and S. Kim, International variability in diet and requirements of manganese: Causes and consequences. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 38 (2016) 24-32.
[25] J. V. White, P. Guenter, G. Jensen, A. Malone, M. Schofield, A. M. W. Group, and A. B. Directors, Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition). Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(5) (2012) 730-738.
[26] M. E. Penny, Zinc supplementation in public health. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 62(Suppl. 1) (2013) 31-42.
[27] M. Ruz, F. Carrasco, P. Rojas, K. Basfi-Fer, M. C. Hernández, and A. Pérez, Nutritional effects of zinc on metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: mechanisms and main findings in human studies. Biological trace element research, 188(1) (2019) 177-188.
[28] J. W. O'Donohue, M. A. Reid, A. Varghese, B. Portmann, and R. Williams, Micronodular cirrhosis and acute liver failure due to chronic copper self-intoxication. European journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 5(7) (1993) 561-562.
[29] M. Araya, M. Olivares, and F. Pizarro, Copper in human health. International Journal of Environment and Health, 1(4) (2007) 608-620.
[30] Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series No 52, 2004.
[31] WHO, Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series, (52), 2004.
[32] K. Shekhawat, S. Chatterjee, and B. Joshi, Chromium toxicity and its health hazards. International Journal of Advanced Research3(7) (2015) 167-172.
[33] A. Ozyilmaz, A. Demirci, D. B. Konuskan, and S. Demirci, Macrominerals, micro minerals, heavy metal, fat, and fatty acid profiles of European hake (Merluccius merluccius Linnaeus, 1758) caught by gillnet. J Entomol Zool Stud, 5(6) (2017) 272-275.
[34] A. Andrews, and S. Kwofie, Corrosion of cast iron mill plates in wet grinding. CAL, 3 (2010) 0-64.
[35] G. Matta, and L. Gjyli, Mercury, lead, and arsenic: impact on the environment and human health. J. Chem. Pharm. Sci, 9 (2016) 718-725.
[36] T. V. M. Sreekanth, P. C. Nagajyothi, K. D. Lee, and T. N. V. K. V. Prasad, Occurrence, physiological responses, and toxicity of nickel in plants. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(5) (2013) 1129-1140.
[37] Q. Y. Chen, J. Brocato, F. Laulicht, and M. Costa, Mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis in Essential and Non-essential Metals. Humana Press, Cham, (2017) 181-197.
[38] Trumbo, P., Yates, A. A., Schlicker, S., and Poos, M. (2001). Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Journal of the American Dietetic Association101(3), 294-301.
[39] Joint, F. A. O., and WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (2003). Sixty-first meeting Rome, 10-19 June 2003. Summary and conclusions. http://www. who. int/pcs/jecfa/ Summaries.
[40] WHO. (2004). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Sixty-first meeting, Rome, 10-19 June 2003. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Available from