Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya

2 Chemistry Department, Art& Science Faculty-Tokra, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya.

4 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Art and Science-Tokra/University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya

5 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Libya

6 Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Public Health, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya.

7 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Art and Science-Tokra/University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya.


Honey is used for nutritional, therapeutic and manufacturing purposes and it is a significant product in the global market. Honey is defending as a natural indicator of floral biodiversity and environmental quality. In this study, the levels of some macro and trace elements (main mineral contents) including numbers of heavy metalswere evaluated in honey samples from beekeepers in three different regions in east Libya including Benghazi, Maraj and Ajdabiya, during 2018.These samples include; uniflora and multiflora honey. The levels of ten elements were measured; sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K),magnesium (Mg), zinc(Zn), iron(Fe), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al) and toxic elements; such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).The results showed, the ranges of macro minerals, Na, Ca, K and Mg varied from 10.93-32.30,39.14-298.5, 176.24-734.28 and 12.62-55.26mg/kg, respectively, and the ranges of trace and toxic elements, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Cd and Pb varied from 0.428-2.508, 0.248-0.720, 0.021-0.610, 0.009-0.0423, 0-0.011 and0-0.009 mg/kg, respectively. Also, the concentration of all elements was statistically significant difference within all samples (P<0.05), except Zn. The levels of macro and trace elements in the selected Libyan honey samples were variable, while Cd and Pb elements were detected in few honey samples and not detected in the rest. This study reveals that Libyan honeys were of high quality, rich in minerals and safe with trace elements present within permissible limits of the Libyan Standard Legislation.

Graphical Abstract

The Contents of some Macro and Trace Elements in Uniflora and Multiflora Honey Samples Collected from Three Regions in East Libya


  • Flame Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the minerals contents in some uniflora and multiflora Libyan honey samples.
  • The results of the essential minerals contents indicated that Libyan honey is a good source of nutrients for both adult and children.
  • Based on the contents of trace and toxic minerals, the selected Libyan honey samples are considered to be safe for human consumption.


Main Subjects

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