Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Pharmacy, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal

2 Department of Chemistry, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

3 Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal



The geographical distribution consequences on phytochemical constituents of the fruit extract of Zanthoxylum armatum collected from the different altitude of Nepal (tropical to temperate elevation arrange), and their antimicrobial properties were investigated via GC-MS and disc diffusion method. The samples were collected from the lower tropical region (Dang: 300-1000m), subtropical regions (Makwanpur and Surkhet: 1000-2000m), and temperate region (Salyan: 2000-3000m). The ethanol extract in the Soxhlet extractor was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Among the extracts, a total of 12, 23, 16, and 10 compounds were identified in the samples collected from Dang, Makwanpur, Surkhet, and Salyan respectively. The geographical variation showed differences in the composition of the constituents of the extracts. Mainly, cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) 11.19-27.69%, linalool 9.02-23.93%, and methyl cinnamate 13.56-19.42% were detected as the dominant compounds with variable composition. The antimicrobial property of all the specimens from Dang, Makwanpur, and Salyan, exhibited a quite satisfactory zone of inhibition against tested bacteria and fungi although the sample from Salyan was found to be more effective compared to others even having the similar phytoconstituents. The higher efficacy of antimicrobial properties of extract collected from Salyan (highest altitude) was due to the presence of palmitoleic acid (27.69%) at higher content. The antifungal and antibacterial efficacy appeared to relate with the antimicrobial activity of the major compounds, (linalool, methyl cinnamate, and palmitoleic acid). Furthermore, the pharmacological properties of the detected compounds justified the traditional use of this plant and helped to claim it a wonder plant. 

Graphical Abstract

Geographical Distribution Effect on Phytoconstituents Variation of Nepalese Zanthoxylum armatum Fruit Extract and Their Antimicrobial Properties


Main Subjects

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