Document Type : Original Research Article
Federal University of Technology Owerri, Department of Chemistry, PMB 1526, Imo State Nigeria
The phytochemical composition of brown, green and red propolis collected from an apiary in Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, was analyzed using the GC-FID technique. The phytochemical analysis results revealed that anthocyanin was the predominant photochemical, which occurred highest in red propolis (84.68 µg/g) followed by brown propolis (79.35 µg/g) but was not detected in green propolis. The brown propolis contained anthocyanin (79.35 µg/g), phenols (29.11 µg/g), flavanones (23.64 µg/g), naringenin (19.30 µg/g), flavan-3-ol (14.79 µg/g), proanthocyanins (12.79 µg/g) and steroids (10.35 µg/g) as major constituents while the green propolis showed significant presence of proanthocyanins (60.63 µg/g), lunamarin (19.90 µg/g), phenols (14.68 µg/g) and naringenin (10.64 µg/g). Proanthocyanins (69.18 µg/g), anthocyanin (84.68 µg/g), spartein (13.57 µg/g), phenols (46.99 µg/g), catechin (13.49 µg/g), and quinine (21.09 µg/g) were most abundant in the red propolis. The quantities of flavonoids / phenolic revealed may therefore be regarded as an important tool for recognizing the propolis color and floral type. This study has given scientific backing to attributing propolis color as one of the determinants of its floral origin and therapeutic properties. Propolis color should therefore be incorporated in future standardization and at the same time influence its acceptability by the consumers.
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