Document Type : Original Research Article


Chemistry Department, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


Bile, often known as gall, is a dark-green fluid produced by the liver of most vertebrates. It is ‎largely made up of steroidal detergent-like compounds and membrane lipids including un-‎esterified cholesterol and mixed phosphatidylcholines. A good number of animal bile has been ‎utilized ethno-medicinally for ages. Animal bile has been administered to cure liver, skin ‎disorders, malaria, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. The extraction was achieved by solvent ‎extraction in chloroform, where 40% aqueous methanol was added to about 4 liters of the bile ‎sample, mixed thoroughly and acidified with 2M H2SO4 solution to a pH of about 3.0 - 4.0. ‎After several agitations, the mixture was allowed to stand for 24 hours, and then extracted with ‎chloroform. The crude chloroform extract was purified using standard purification techniques of ‎column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The structure of the ‎compound was characterized using, - (1H NMR), 13C NMR, and DEPT 135 spectroscopic ‎techniques in order to propose the structure of the compound as (Methyl-3,12-dihydroxycholan-‎‎24-oate). The in-vitro antimalarial assay of the crude extract and the isolated compound was ‎carried out on Plasmodium falciparum. The results of the antimalarial activity of the crude bile ‎extract and isolated compound revealed IC50 values of 16.16 µg/mL and 32.09 µg/mL, respectively ‎which indicates the moderate antimalarial activity compared to chloroquine standard control ‎‎(0.029 µg/mL). The results of the investigation revealed that the bovine bile extract, contain ‎bioactive chemical substances which could be good, therapeutic agents against malaria..

Graphical Abstract

Isolation, Characterization and Antimalarial Evaluation of Methyl-3,12-dihydroxycholan-24-oate from Bovine Bile


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